Sunday, October 28, 2007

Tube and transistor (marriage of convenience)

Conversations on that is a better, transistor or lamps, are conducted from time immemorial. The dominating opinion of years for twenty five smoothly and, accordingly, imperceptibly varies on the opposite. And if in the early seventies on transistor receivers the quantity of transistors on which this device is executed (it was supposed, that communication quantity-quality a straight line) in the late nineties in forward panels of equipment drill holes that we could see sacred fire of a tubes or lamps in ultramodern preliminary amplifiers or sound processors was specified, and to tremble already with one it. The trembling of the similar plan, in general, business quite well - emotion is faster the positive. But it is offered to pay for it additional money and, as a rule, the considerable. Manufacturers oftubeses technics, naturally, try to strengthen in us confidence that if the device tubes, means it is by all means good. To make then it tried always, but this time whereas the evolutionary spiral has already practically made a full turn, to it, similar, it is possible, and now we are at the first stage of tubes boom. It proves to be true also what on a question "Why so is expensive?" There was norm an answer - "And that you want, it tubes". The boom is desirable for meeting fully armed - with a sober head and clear understanding of that it is necessary for you. It is uneasy. If to the sound producer with the long-term experience of job on a specialty, hearing a considerable quantity both tubes, and the transistor technics to hang up noodles on ears difficult enough, the musical semiprofessional or the fan which the majority, to confuse easier. Possibilities to compare sounding of different equipment rather limited. The information received from sellers of the musical equipment, flavoured with hearings (often inspired companies-manufacturers), a fashion and pathos, a fashion accompanying - it is far not the best platform for an equipment choice.

First of all, it is necessary to understand what tubes sounding from transistor and why differs. The following explanation is represented to me beautiful, laconic and, moreover, almost sufficient: well really - in the transistor the sound is born in a crystal, and in tubes - in vacuum. It is difficult to think up environment not more similar. As not to compare sounding? Ice and fire! Here I am not original, as articles devoted to these subject in foreign magazines, leave often under type headings: "Warm and Cool", "Hot or Cold", etc.

In one of such articles in whom the author it is given reason enough proves the superiority of a tubes over the transistor on all indicators (the truth, for some reason in it is not mentioned a word such important indicator of sounding as noise), the interesting explanation of appeal of tubes sounding on use example in the seventieth classical condenser microphones with tubes preamplifiers is brought. Business appears that these microphones have a signal of very high level (to 1,5) and preliminary amplifiers are compelled to work practically constantly with an overload. At a tubes overload first there is a natural compression of a sound therefore it is perceived as more "dense". Secondly there is a sound distortion therefore it is enriched by harmonics. In the tubes technics the arrangement of these harmonics on loudness practically coincides with an overtone nearby, that is second (octave), third (fifth), the fourth, the fifth etc. harmonics that is subjectively perceived as pleasant on hearing, "musical" sounding are added. The similar principle of enrichment of an initial signal is applied by harmonics, for example, in such device, as exciter.

At an overload of transistor technics the sound also is distorted, but the signal is thus saturated basically with odd harmonics, that is the third, the fifth, the seventh, the ninth etc. From them the seventh and ninth harmonics - discording, that the hearing, to put it mildly, does not caress and is perceived how it and is - as distortions.

As sounding of transistors and lamps seriously differs from each other, obviously, as variants of application of the technics constructed on so not similar components, should differ. Probably, in any cases the tubes, and in any - the transistor is more preferable. For the answer to a question - for what it is better to use that and another, it is necessary to give general characteristics of sounding both tubes, and semi-conductor sound devices. The last in the far abroad it is accepted to name "solid-state" (solid state).

So, a tubes.
+: sounds warmly, at an overload gives to sounding additional "musicality".
-: noise (as consequence of complexity with qualitative strengthening of signals of low level), bulkiness, small service life (some guitarists are compelled to change lamps in the amplifiers every month), badly transfer transportation, low EFFICIENCY (the most part is spent by consumed tubes technics of energy for premise heating, that can be welcomed only in the winter, and that only at idle heating).

Transistors and other semiconductors.
+: a correctness, true soundings, small noise, compactness of semi-conductor devices, low consumption of energy.
-: the dry sounding sharply worsening at an overload.

As we see characteristics opposite - that is good at lamps, it is bad at transistors, and on the contrary. Especially successful it is possible to consider application of lamps in an overload mode that is there where it is necessary to change, paint an initial signal just. Thus the tubes equipment (whether it be a microphonic preamplifier, the compressor or a guitar cabinet) becomes as though processing, the elementary, (but as it has appeared, is far not the worst) the processor of effects. A vivid example of use of lamps as a sound heater is device TL Audio Valve Interface - the eight-channel device in which is eight inputs, eight exits and the food switch. Any adjustment. And inside there are the lamps capable at once to warm something eight-channel, for example, ADAT. The low noise level and distortions is better to use the transistor technics there where are especially important true soundings.

In general, it seems to me, that to "characters" of transistors and lamps it is quite possible to apply the theory of floors and to consider it at equipment selection. A tubes - obviously expressed lady. Its sounding is soft and comfortable, it well carries overloads (transforms adverse circumstances to favorable result) and can make sounding of your inexpensive dynamic microphone similar to sounding of a condenser microphone with the big membrane (to women exaggerations are peculiar). The Clear advantage in front of tubes transistors has in guitar equipment. It is necessary to say, that guitarists in general the people rather conservative and, in essence, from lamps on transistors and did not pass or, anyway, always preferred tubes sounding. And here as studio control equipment the tubes technics, probably to use it is not necessary - just the uncompromising, is minimum painted, not misleading sound of transistors here is necessary. It will not give out wished for valid - it is possible to rely on it. Man's, in a word, a sound.

There is absolutely natural question, and what, it is impossible unless, at modern development of electronics, to make a sound of the transistor device warm, and tubes - authentic? Certainly it is possible! And such technics exists. There is it the truth expensively. For example, studio tubes reference the amplifier for ear-phones Tube-Tech PA 6, the giving unpainted sound, costs 1999 American dollars. So I suggest not to use special women as bodyguards and not less special men as secretaries-reviewers decorating office. But if amateurs of exotic wish to pay to forbid them of it anybody, naturally, cannot...

Now about the prices. Relatives on a class semi-conductor and tubes devices should have the comparable prices. Yes, lamps are more expensive, than transistors, but tubes devices strongly easier and contain 10 times less details (including tubes adherents explain today these surprising qualities of sounding of sponsored devices). Nevertheless, has historically developed so, that the tubes technics all the same is a little bit more expensive (there are pleasant exceptions: for example, rather decent microphonic preamplifier ART Tube MP by 199$). A little, but not in times, I ask to have it in view of when at the height of a tubes fashion to you will offer for a fantastic sum everything in what though something is shone. And in general, absolutely necessary for today it is possible to recognize only bulbs of Ilyich or the device, their replacing (for example, kerosene or oil lamps).

Some companies making professional sound equipment, make the combined tube-semi-conductor technics, trying to connect in it better qualities of lamps and transistors, thereby proving, that and a quivering fallow deer it is possible to use a horse as draught force if to do it with mind. As an example it is possible to bring Aphex Tubessence 107 - the tube-semi-conductor microphonic preamplifier which has received in 1995 award TEC in a nomination "the additional equipment". Certain successes the English company TL Audio doing preliminary amplifiers, compressors and equalizers in which entrance cascades semi-conductor - on silent microcircuits, and the cascades which are directly responsible for a compression or regulation of frequencies, are executed on lamps has reached also. Therefore on lamps the signal arrives already strengthened, that allows to receive as a whole a decent parity a signal/noise. Thus, semiconductors provide small noise, and lamps are engaged in that well is possible to them: compressing and sound warming. Idyll, and only.

Very much that the way to the compromise is found also the future behind the combined technics, in which as in a happy family, heroes of this article will begin to live, supplementing each other would be desirable to believe, pleasing us and rejoicing. As for today responses about the combined equipment rather encouraging.

It is necessary to mention also equipment Hi-End. Here where application of lamps is absolutely justified, as this equipment only for pleasure of hearing serves and should sound as much as possible beautifully. Though authors of audio magazines, in my opinion, have absolutely mixed for a long time already such two concepts as the beauty of a sound and its naturalness, and put often an equal-sign between two these far not always coinciding, concepts. In hi-end world the tubes unshakably sits on a throne and as intolerance audiofills soon should enter into sayings, quietest of the characteristics given by them to the transistor technics, the maxim is: "the Good transistor amplifier - the transistor amplifier disconnected from a network!"

At parting it would be desirable to repeat what to suit to an equipment choice it is necessary easy and it is weighed. Type phrases "only a tubes" or "the transistor - it is unequivocal!" Would be amusing if to communicate with the people inclined to similar approaches, would not be so unpleasantly. There, where categoricalness begins - competence comes to an end, and these people prefer to dispute abuse. So I advise to you to doubt - to listen - to read - to think. Good luck!

Andrey Mihailov
The musical Equipment

Friday, October 26, 2007

How to become successful?

Study to be persistence. Do not stop on a way to success.
In America there is such joke: "Means you are an author of songs? And at what restaurant you work?» Many authors who are known now by all world, earned for a life absolutely other things before to them popularity in musical business has come. All these years they found time to move on a way to author's success.
Sure, that is difficult enough to work the full working day, to keep in touch with friends and relatives, to carry out all duties which are assigned to us by a daily life, and at the same time, to find time and forces, to write songs. But practically to each author who has now achieved success, it was necessary to combine in the past all it.

If you do not have not enough time to write, look more attentively, at how you waste time. The hours spent in front of the TV, either in Internet chats, or behind computer games, it is possible to spend for work over songs. At someone the inspiration can wake up in the morning then it is possible to rise on an hour earlier, and to write, while anybody yet does not stir, or on the contrary, to someone will allocate more conveniently hour before a dream. Instead of complaining, that you could not find time to work over songs, find out is better, on what you have lost it.

It is not necessary to get into debt, expecting, that you can hold on, while you suddenly do not become the supersuccessful author; the road to success, most likely, will occupy much more time, than you can expect. Realistic forecasts for the future will help you to save correct prospect and not to lose hope in expectation of the true break.

Meanwhile, as you had a desire to become the author of super-hits and achievement of this purpose, many years can leave. Desire to reach an object in view and optimism - very important things. But when any beginning author says, that his song will be in all charts and charts within the next year, it is possible to smile and say him, that we will hope, and happens. Chances of it also are insignificant, as that will strike you a lightning within one day twice.

Ability to write effective songs is reached in due course; such ability can be compared to developing educational process. It is similar to how the child studies to go. After all to learn it, he should seize many skills: at first to develop muscles, to learn to save balance, to learn still to many other things that all these skills have led to his first uncertain steps. Some of skills cannot be studied at once - time is required to them to develop. The same occurs and to authors.
Advice which you can find here will help you. But, if you do not have exclusive luck the road to success will be long, with many obstacles, disappointments and failures. It would be desirable to hope, that time now it is known to you; you will be more patient in the course of training. Successful authors some nowadays lived many years in a status of depression from failures instead of considering the life as travel on road to success. There are thousand histories about extraordinary successful songs which have been written down and became hits only after many years after the birth.
To overcome obstacles in a way to success.

There is an incalculable quantity of songs which actors at first have refused, but have then written down their and these songs became hits. Sometimes the song can be rejected, because it hardly is less good, than the songs written by your competitors or because it not quite suits for the concrete project. People who daily listen to tens songs, can commit a mistake. Practically each professional of the musical industry has histories (about which he can and be silent), that he has not estimated one or several songs which became subsequently hits. Sometimes the answer "is not present" can designate, that you should show the creative approach and to find other ways that your song have heard. A&R any actor cannot estimate a song, but it can like the actor and the producer. Perhaps, the song will be estimated by the director of the actor, or other representative of the company. Do not give to refusal to stop you. Probably, it is necessary to try to come through other door.

If ability to write hits was simple and easy each author would write only hits. There are many obstacles which stand between the beginning author and success. Sometimes the most important barriers are what we to ourselves create. They and are the most difficult for making out.

The quantity of skills which the successful author should possess can seem to the unattainable. It is necessary not only the nobility of structure of songs, technics of a writing of texts and melodies, persistence is still necessary, readiness to work, knowledge on demo producing, it is necessary to find the publisher, to learn much about musical business, to get communications, to find adherents, and to learn to advance the songs.

Good news consist that to you is not obligatory to be engaged in all it at once. Make the list of your strengths as the author. Add in it your abilities on a writing of effective melodies and words, and also such qualities as persistence, the desire is a lot of to work and possibility professionally to do author's business. When you will see you’re strong and the weaknesses committed to paper, it will be easier to you to allocate those spheres on which it is necessary to concentrate. It is possible to allocate one - two spheres, from job over which it is necessary to concentrate first of all, then in the same way to undertake the others. Also it is important to develop the plan in which the nearest will be put and long-term objectives. It is not necessary to itself to speak: «One of my songs becomes a hit on all radio stations in three months ". It will not happen, even if you have written yesterday a magnificent song. It is required much more three months that the song has been written down, released in a commercial turn and has risen in charts. It will be more useful to say to itself, for example:" I will write on half an hour five days in a week, especially concentrating on narrative texts which will involve people without dependence from their status and which will go directly from heart ".
Usually plans to build easier, than to them to adhere. If to you it is heavy, find the co-author who will help you to follow under this plan.
Pay attention to hindrances which you to yourselves create. Analyze, that to you stirs for object in view achievement what exactly does not allow to you to waste time on creative activity and to produce any necessary skills, and destroy their one for another.

At initial stages of your development as author, is better to concentrate on sharpening of skills and skill. If you write at least year, and you have twenty ready songs, you also need to start to think and of the commercial party of business.
One of the basic skills necessary for success in author's business is stability in the face of inevitable refusals and the disappointment connected with them. Authors who embody the dreams, from authors who surrender, that they can transform the disappointment from failures into stronger aspiration to success distinguish. There is, at least, one thousand reasons on which your song can not take. If the received reaction means, that you have written a strong song, but it does not suit the given company or the actor, means you while simply have found the necessary place for the song. But if you constantly receive answers, that the song mismatches professional standards, or something concrete in it needs to be changed, then you needs to finish it.

By approximate calculations, the income to professional authors is brought only by 5% of the songs written by them, the others of 95 % never become commercially successful. It is interesting, that to become successful, authors on the one hand need to put all soul in the songs, and with another - to develop feeling of dispassionateness from these songs to sustain disappointment which sometimes can be devastating. Remember: your value as persons is not defined by level of commercial success which you have reached as the author.
As a result of disappointment some authors start to abuse alcohol or to accept drugs or start to behave as the people doomed to a failure that for a while allows dulling fear and a pain from refusal.

Here correct ways which allow to cope with disappointment and to become even more strongly:
1. Learn to learn a lesson from each event.
Wonder, whether it is possible to find something positive in this refusal. Whether it is possible to learn any lesson - can, something need to be changed in this song, or in songs which you are going to to write, or in how you do business? Remain susceptible to constructive criticism.
2. Increase the purposefulness.
One of the most successful people in any sphere are those who uses each failure as motive even more to work over achievement of the purposes. If you speak to yourselves: "I will show, be how much good my songs can. Not very well, how much on it will leave time, but I will write so powerful song, that it cannot reject," it is much more productive, than to speak: "I Think, it proves, that I am not capable to write a song. I never will achieve success".
3. Really estimate the possibilities.
Probably, you need to make revaluation of the expectations. Perhaps your prospects for the future are too overestimated in relation to that stage on which you now are as the author. If you write all within 1-2 years, at leisure, is unreal your songs will expect that as are good, as what have been written by the professional authors perfecting the skill for many years.
4. Never surrender (while you enjoy process).
Remember that if while you have not achieved any concrete display of success the thought on it should not interfere with achievement of your purposes in the future.
Not each author who reads this advice, will see, how its songs rise on tops of charts. Some can and will see. But each author who works much, grinds skill, remaining thus susceptible to constructive criticism, will continue to raise and improve the skills. A finding of pleasure in the course of a writing of songs, feeling of satisfaction which comes with knowledge of that you have passed your thoughts so, that they have found the response in other hearts, is and there is a success. A way happy to you!

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Mastering - all about it is detailed.

Many of us fine understand process of record of music at a concert or in studio. On the carrier, whether it is a hard disk, CD or a tape you write down the audio materials, audio fragments. Then, all these slices are going to in a definitive master copy which then goes on factory where duplicating is carried out. Process of manufacturing of a definitive master copy is called as mastering. It means three stages:

1. Installation: All necessary records from tapes are transferred to the digital assembly panel. Compositions are placed in the necessary order and between them certain intervals become. The beginnings and the ends of songs are reduced to full silence or to a natural background of a concert hall, or made out according to your wishes. Claps, clicks and hindrances can be removed often at a mastering stage, depending on their source and loudness.

2. Processing: Since early days of vinyl this stage is considered process heart, during it the transparency, softness, dynamism and a sound saturation, depending on that is necessary for the given type of music can be improved. If workmanship, arrangements and records is initially good the definitive master copy will sound even better, than the shown soundtrack. It that is necessary for the sound recording companies, especially what work in the pop music market - a qualitative sound and competitiveness.

3. Output: Definitive variants of compositions are transferred on corresponding carriers for duplicating. At duplicating of cartridges most often the preference is given 4 mm to DAT-cartridges. At punching компакт disks are preferable or 3/4 inch tapes of standard "JU Matic" (still them tapes 1630 name) or CD-R (written down compact discs). The studio which is carrying out mastering makes the reference DAT-cartridge or a CDR-disk for a definitive estimation of quality the executor or the sound recording company.

Whether and mastering in general is necessary?

If your sound producer is one of those rare unique persons who can simultaneously carry out both mix and mastering then it is possible to reach quite good results by direct carrying over from the shown tape, but there are at least three reasons on which professionals send the records in studio mastering:

1. Usually it promotes considerable improvement of quality of the shown soundtrack. The market makes rigid demands. If you want, that your disk corresponded to modern requirements it should sound absolutely faultlessly. Just as in a case with expensive boots - if they are not polished, hardly probable who can estimate how much they are beautiful. Allow, that various compositions have been written down at various times in a current of week or longer period, it leads to distinctions on level of a sound and the general character of sounding. Mastering allows creating a single whole from separate musical fragments.

2. Mastering-engineer has huge experience of listening of music of various styles and possesses fresh perception of music. By then, as data come to an end, at all participating in him already press on a brain. It is difficult enough to notice any omissions after you have heard to record of times fifty. The fresh sight from the party, a new set of skills of listening adjusted on general impression estimation, instead of on a detail of compositions, can appear very pertinent. Mastering-engineer should feel confidently both in art, and in technical area of musical business. Good skill to communicate also is very important, as the large quantity of terms for the sound description is used. For example: «It is necessary that record sounded impressively, powerfully, densely, warmly, naturally, is modern, is soft and is live. It is necessary that there was air, depth, shine, a pressure, sharpness, clearness, and definiteness».

The purpose of the mastering-engineer is to understand and follow instructions of the producer or the customer and then to add or remove that is necessary, at all it is more. Often changes are imperceptible, but reaction of the producer or the client always will be such - «Wow! That takes the cake. »

3. Mastering-studio it is equipped by processors of exclusive quality which are developed specially for processing of a stereo of signals. It is obvious, one business to pass only a guitar through the terminator and an equalizer and absolutely another to pass through all of them tools. The definitive mix represents a difficult and thin thing and can be spoilt also easily, as well as is improved. The studio equipment usually does not approach for mastering. In a following question it is considered in more details.

What data are better: digital or analogue?

Many studios prefer DAT-cartridges for record data. They are convenient and provide high quality of a sound. There is other format, «Rane Paqrat» which allows you to save to 24 bats of audio of the information on Alesis ADAT or Tascam DA88, but he is used seldom enough. Now DAT is the conventional standard. Whether there are variants? DAT the tape on is considered the best format, than 1/4-дюймовая 38sm/with though if you wish to receive a dense, "fat" sound in this case the analogue format has advantages. If you have a device for 1/4-дюймовой tapes, make in parallel steam of mixes in it and on DAT, then sit down and hear to them.

What is preferable - analogue or digital processing?

On this question there is no certain answer though some authoritative engineers insist that music should not come back to an analogue format, thus, that now there is a possibility to use a digital format. Others trust only to analogue equipment. Here the unbiased approach is necessary. The analogue equipment is famous for lightness, warmth and aggressiveness. The tendency of use of analogue equipment grows, while more and more studios use digital multichannel tape recorders and digital panels.

DAT-cartridges are a standard format for data now so further we will assume that you use DAT-cartridges. As is known DAT is a 16-bit format of data storage, and he should provide a sound of the same quality as on a compact disc, but not all so is simple. In this respect there are at least three reasons:

1. Present for a minute that you carry out data by means of the analogue panel and receive perfectly sounding two-channel mix. First of all, the analogue-digital converters which have been built in your DAT-tape recorder are far from perfect. It has universal character as manufacturers of DAT-tape recorders spend money basically for other components, for example, on the tape drive mechanism and other. If you solve this problem by connection of the external analogue-digital converter you will feel a considerable difference, but it to you will cost as much, how much the tape recorder, and even is much more expensive. We will return to a reality - many studios will use the converters which have been built in the DAT-tape recorder.
Good news is that many last models of tape recorders are equipped by decent enough converters. Not most perfect, but quite suitable, especially for many styles of a pop music. So let's make one more assumption - that data are carried out in a digital format and the sound turns out satisfactory...

2. You need to dump mixes on a tape usually named by a preliminary master copy or a working tape. There is a set of digital assembly editors, and on the majority of them it is possible to receive good results if correctly to use them. It suits for direct carrying over - forming of songs in the necessary order, maintenance of due transitions between separate fragments and clearings of the beginnings and the ends of songs. Notice, that processing process has not been mentioned.

3. Processing demands involvement of much bigger computing powers, it is more than use than 16 bits of data for preservation of integrity of music. More modern 24-bit sound maps in the Macintosh or РС provide an excellent sound, and many people notice, that at the received master copies there is something that was not in initial soundtracks. What alternatives of processing? Be convinced, that in studio there are means for works realization in a digital format. But whether it is probable in general? Whether all can make digital processors? Supporters of digital equipment will respond you: YES! It is possible to agree with it. Digital processors can provide a sound of excellent quality. However, nevertheless there are some analogue processors which cannot be replaced digital yet. Their number includes some «самопальные» devices which are used for giving to music of the necessary sounding.

Anybody cannot explain it yet, however the best analogue equipment provides a sound which cannot be reproduced digital devices. Processors for processing of signals influence many aspects of music, and music inherently is analogue process.

Work at DA-converters which recycle the data flow can serve in an analogue format as good means, effectively eliminating digital trembling on time of generation of a signal (jitter). Trembling is interesting feature of a digital sound which can spoil sounding of good music. In good DA there is specially made ultrastable generator of digital frequency for which bill it is possible to receive the stable sound going on the analogue device.

In general, if music is in digital area there it and leave, believing, that you have equipment, allowing to save demanded internal stability and to provide the sounding necessary to you. If you come back to an analogue format, make it very cautiously as superfluous converting can remove sensation of a "live" sound. The most important thing to make only that will go on advantage to music. If the project arrives on the digital carrier it is better to begin work on the checked up chain of digital mastering when it is demanded by music, and to apply analogue equipment when from it will be more advantage. Some customers strictly insist on this or that decision. In this case it is reasonable, that all remained are happy.

What equipment to use in studio to improve music sounding?

Processors for processing of signals enough. You choose what is necessary for concrete work. Compressors, terminators and equalizers are the basic tools of mastering-studios. When use of digital equipment is required, it is necessary to use 24-bit computer processors. They contain a standard set of equalizers, devices for the control of dynamics and the general atmosphere of a sound. As to especial problems or effects, there is a number of devices which influence simultaneously both level, and on frequency of a sound, them sometimes name spectral processors or dynamic equalizers. Exiters strengthen harmonics, but they are better for using less often. (The sound becomes granular. There are more optimum ways of improvement of sounding of high frequencies). Other processors are used for updating and improvement of a stereo of effects.

At last, there are special devices for imperceptible effects, such as «a lamp sound» or creations of impression of analogue sounding. These devices can soften digital records some. The lamp equipment can counterbalance some digital effects. At presence at your order of all necessary means, you need to solve only what of them to use. For example, certain combinations of processors can force to sound a song "more fatly". What processors, and in what combination? It is difficult to tell in advance. Here mastering becomes more art, instead of a science. It is necessary to choose only the necessary equipment for the given song. In a case with all processors, analogue or digital, cunning consists in choosing only that is necessary for music, and no more that.

On what monitors it is better to work?

It is much easier to eliminate problems when you know that these monitors can be trusted. Each engineer should pick up system on which to it is more convenient to work. Some prefer small monitors, so-called «a near zone» as in this case is reduced to a minimum of a problem of acoustics of a premise. On such monitors the deep bass but as usually same problem is available for the majority of columns which are used by consumers more often is lost, it is not too bad. Also, columns of such size create often very good stereo effect, both on depth, and on width.
Some engineers prefer the big broadband monitors correctly located indoors for listening. Such systems create the most exact picture of music provided that the parity of the sizes of columns and a premise is chosen correctly. Certainly, it is necessary to take into consideration that fact, that the majority of consumers have no systems of such quality. Nevertheless, it is much better to use high-precision equipment in spite of the fact that uses the others. If your columns allow creating correct representation, it is much easier to you to make necessary indemnification.

Whether all mistakes of data can be corrected at mastering?

The majority of the people directing the work on mastering are provident and have done good work, result of that is quite competitive product. Usually there is no in a mix of any big technical problems, and a general level, the balance and alignment is perfectly in order. The impressive, firm sound is simply necessary to the customer. In this case the basic package deal of mastering is necessary to you only. However, if some records have serious problems the special package deal or hourly payment here is required. There are also some things which cannot be corrected.

Mastering can improve only initially good product. It cannot correct bad data, bad arrangements or inept execution. If the shock sound perfectly, and the bass guitar sounds awfully hardly it will be possible to make so that both tools sounded well.

Many mastering-studios practice the following:

If you are at data stage, you can send one or two trial mixes for a free estimation. If any problems you will have a possibility to correct them before they will extend on 15 songs are appreciable.

How to work with different styles of music?

Here some examples:

Fate and the priest of record are usually directed on sounding on air. All want, that their records sounded energetically and up to the mark. Music should involve and keep attention, and also not bother at reusable listening.

Classical music should be transparent and live. Acoustic tools make refined impression which is necessary for saving. Processing should be very insignificant if it in general is applied. Super pure signals should be maintained up to the mark qualities.

Metal and Industrial receives aggressive processing. If the album is well shown probably to support a dense, harmonious sound, to increase aggressiveness and to save level "on the verge", that is pleasant to admirers of this style.

It is only superficial approach to various styles of music. Each album has certain atmosphere, and each executor tries to express the thoughts. Important not easier to pass an album through a standard chain of processing. It is easier to listen to a material and then to estimate the reaction. If you had inadequate thoughts on processing, it is better to warn about it the customer in advance.

My compact disc should sound more loudly, than at others!

"Illness" has amazed with this many.... Though this decision is quite good for playing on air. For a long time already it has been noticed, that if twice to lose the same musical fragment to listeners, thus once it is a little (до+3 db) is louder, the majority will like louder variant. Sellers of acoustic stereo systems use for a long time this trick for sale of "house" columns which make the greatest profit.

If you wish to reach maximum level it can be carried out with success at a mastering stage. It Is pleasant to you or not, on radio station your music will pass through own terminators before to start up it in an aether. Quality of these processors, to put it mildly, is far from perfect. Processors in good mastering-studio will provide high levels and will save quality of sounding over which you so long worked. What other reasons? If you carry out album mastering only for playing on air, all songs will sound energetically, but you face risk, that people who will listen to a house album, will get tired after 15 - 30 minutes of listening. Experts on music usually do not like an energetic sound during long time even if they like a musical material.
If to look at this problem from the point of view of prospects of the musical industry actually all sound recording companies involuntarily participate in without advantageous competition that on + db to be louder, than others. In this case the sound transparency is sacrificed. Always it is possible to increase some sounding level, but the sensation of live sounding and a transparency thus suffers. The good house system can reproduce more than 90 db a dynamic range. It becomes unnecessary, if in music only 10 db a dynamic range. The decision? The large companies can let out singles on which alignment and compression is made especially for playing on air. Then special mastering under high-quality house equipment, versions for sale in shops can be spent. Less large firms which wish to avoid the second cycle of manufacture of compact discs, have now other possibility.

Many albums last from 45 till 60 minutes, thus on compact a disk there is an empty seat after an album. Buyers prefer that this empty seat has been filled by music, instead of silence. They also not against that on a disk some versions of the same song have been written down. Thus, it is possible to carry out mastering of all albums under listening on high-quality equipment, not thinking about playing on air. Then the strongest things can be premastering for playing on air and are added in the album end. These songs can be marked as remixes or bonus tracks on a label on a disk. This variant is not necessary to the buyer of more money, and after all it is possible not to listen to these songs if it would not be desirable.

Some stages of process of manufacture of compact discs.

It is the general review which describes realization of process of manufacture of a compact disc from the beginning up to the end. Some details can differ depending on manufacture conditions.

1. Manufacturing master CDR.

2. Registration preparation. It is necessary for you to give photos and the text which will be printed in the booklet and on the compact disc. These materials are given either in the form of tapes, or in the form of files for the computer program e.g. Photoshop. Configuration process can be carried out by means of the computer. As a result the text and a drawing settle down how they should be located on an end-product. Registration should satisfy to a number of requirements which can be received in some releasing firms. Three things usually call the majority of delays and additional expenses: very difficult design, the registration, not satisfying to technical requirements, and those who, reconsiders the design after its statement.

If you wish to carry out the strict control of working out of registration from the beginning up to the end, the best variant will find the talented designer and to contact it for work viewing. If its work completely satisfies to technical requirements all will be normal.

3. The tape is made of the finished material for registration. This tape will be used for the cover and booklet press. Take away from three about five working days for tape preparation provided that process will go normally and the tape will satisfy to technical requirements.

4. If the enterprise, on which you print circulation, is not equipped by the equipment for the polygraphs press, the confirmed tape goes to the printing house working with factory. Booklets and covers are delivered to factory where the circulation that it was possible to pack compact discs when they descend from the conveyor is printed.

5. If the factory where you print circulation, has own printing house the tape and a master copy are usually given simultaneously. At factory the glass master disk from yours CDR or Ju-matic is made. The majority of factories are made glass master disks independently for quality assurance maintenance. Then matrixes are made and punching and packing of compact discs is carried out. Can take away from ten about thirty working days on circulation manufacturing. If you give ready booklets, plan from ten about fourteen days.

Many factories can give more exact information. In many holidays, as a rule there are delays.

Advice about preparation for mastering.

If all of you still be at data stage, consider possibility of simplification of a mix. If you wish to add a lot of guitar, synthesizers and «special lotions» for giving to a mix of special sounding, use them rather is better. Many very popular songs are very simple.
«Sound wall» it is necessary to make type mixes very carefully, otherwise they quickly become soiled. If you have touched with such effects it is difficult enough to correct it at a mastering stage. Percussion instruments bring the greatest contribution to peak levels. If it occurs in a case to your mix, try to use from 3 to 6 db restrictions for each of these tools. You will have a possibility to lift the general levels, to achieve the best balance between all tools and during too time to save excellent sounding of percussion instruments. Hear to your trial mixes in the best ear-phones what at you are. Hear to songs on an album which sounding is pleasant to you, and then compare a sound. As ear-phones remove all problems with a bass, the premises caused by features, you will have a possibility quickly to solve a problem of distortion of sounding of basses.

Even good ear-phones cannot create a due picture of sounding, however usually they suit for arrangement of spectral balance, elimination of problems connected with noise and distortion is better, than columns which cost ten times more.

If you have a stereo the compressor or the spectral processor, which sound to you it is pleasant, use it at data - only cautiously. If you bring the cartridge which is strongly limited, especially by means of the multistrip compressor which are extended now in some studios, or equalizing is too aggressive, remains less places for maneuvers, and there can be problems at realization of the sounding necessary to you. Leave for the further work a little db an empty seat.

If you bring the mounted tape for direct carrying over or mastering: Be convinced, that all tape is written down on one frequency sampling, 44.1 кГц or 48 кГц. In those places where there are transitions, clicks can be added. Frequency transition sampling which is not audible on your equipment can is audible on other equipment. The absolute time code (minutes, seconds) is used for a finding of songs on the DAT-cartridge. It should be written down from the beginning of a tape till the end of a musical material. If at rewind you have slipped a point where on the display the time code is displayed and you see only hyphens, it is necessary for you to rewind a tape back, while you will not see a time code before to record a new song. The additional payment can be raised in case on your DAT-cartridge there is no time code or if it breaks before the record termination. The list of your songs should be adhered to this time code and is in a column marked as start Time.

There should not be clicks or noise between songs. If there is a tape hissing, it should be softly shown to full silence between songs. If noise of all programs is homogeneous it is possible to write down in the end of the cartridge a site of this noise to 3сек, for its further analysis and program adjustment noisegate. If you make intervals between songs and not sure, what length is optimum, listen to any disk similar on style on your music. As a rule, in the Priest/fate styles the length from 1 till 3 seconds, in Classical styles from 3 till 6 seconds is accepted. If at a song is present very long smooth fadeout level the following song can begin directly in a second. If at a song the sharp ending, with a short additional fragment, to you can want to extend an interval some. It is a perception question. Give to somebody with good hearing to hear to record from the beginning up to the end, before to send a tape on mastering. It can seem to you obvious, but in haste you can miss some details.
Recommended tapes - Ampex, Sony, DIC MQ, and DENON, in this order.
Necessarily give the list of songs in which are specified the name, beginning time in minutes and seconds and length of each song. The handwritten lists should be clear and read.
If you have the special wishes, concerning processing of one song or all album, print them on a separate leaf and put to the cartridge.
Mastering can yield positive results, only if you have well worked over the album.


Any person can create sound recording studio - there would be a desire. Well and, of course, possibility to get the corresponding equipment and programs. But consultations of the professional are necessary for reception of qualitative result. The director of shop "Rock'n roll" Vladislav Aryzharov and seller Arseny Artemyev have shared the experience.

The sound recording is a process of record of the sound information which result is the ready musical product. There are two its kinds: analogue and digital. The analogue recording is very expensive and difficult in processing as all tools are written on the tape tape recorder. Such record precisely passes an initial sound picture, but it has a lack: high level of noise and hindrances. Therefore it is more preferable to use a method of digital record as it is cheaper and more accessible. Such record has low level of noise, and, besides, it is easy for storing and processing by means of the computer.

From the point of view of musicians, the analogue recording is always better - it true, and in digital there is no life.

How much is studio

To create studio of the European standard, it is necessary about one million dollars. The professional studio has some premises for record with good acoustics and sound insulation: rooms for record of a voice, drums etc. the whole staff which can solve various problems in any style of music Here works. Only the best studios presume to have to themselves devices of different times. After all if you wish to reach soundings "The Beatles" or "Rolling Stones", that equipment on which they worked is necessary.

Project-studios are semidigital studios where there is a computer, the software, a certain tooling. Such studio can manage from 100 to 500 thousand dollars. Many world stars register in such conditions.

If you burn with the desire to create own house studio it will manage to you a minimum in 3 - 5 thousand dollars.

Create studio

The first step on a way to creation of own studio - premise furnish: installation of special wall and ceiling panels etc. The following step - computer acquisition. He also is heart of any working studio. After that it is necessary to buy various electronic devices: the audiointerface, microphones etc. We will stop on it more in detail.
• The audio interface (sound cards). Results of all further activity depend on it: quality of sounding and convenience of job. Therefore it is necessary to approach to a choice with all responsibility. Outwardly sound map looks very simply: the majority of components is realized in the form of the microcircuits which have been soldered in a payment. In an audio map there can be panels, mixers, banks of various effects. The price: from 10-15 dollars for the elementary models to several thousand for the professional. In Krasnoyarsk shops it is possible to get cheap enough quite good map and with its help to write down microphones, guitars, etc.

• The MIDI-keyboard (Musical Instruments Digital Interface) - the digital interface of musical instruments. With its help the computer turns to a synthesizer: the musician can operate all tools from one keyboard. But by pressing keys MIDI the information, but not sounds is passed only. All available tools in MIDI unite in some groups which are called as banks or libraries of sounds, samples. The quantity of such banks can reach 16 384, and a maximum quantity of tools - 2 097 152. Libraries of sounds can be bought on separate CDs-disks, to load them into the computer and to use at record of songs. License disks can cost from hundred dollars to several thousand, thus they can replace various tools both popular, and exotic.

• Studio monitors. Correctly to hear, that becomes with music records, it is not enough to buy simple computer columns, special studio monitors are for this purpose necessary. Now in the market the large quantity of models, the price - from 300 dollars and above is presented. The main thing that the monitor passed an accurate sound, mistakes differently are inevitable at mixing mastering. Except monitors in studio stereo speakers and ear-phones are necessary.
Programs for record

On the modern studio equipment multichannel records, as a rule, become, i.e. On a separate path the guitar, on separate drums, a voice is written. In the course of job over sounding there is a necessity to connect some sound files. It is called as mixing mastering . The separate class of multichannel mixing mastering of sound files is developed for it. For example, one of the most popular and accessible now is computer program Pro Tools..

System Pro Tools consists of program and hardware parts. It works very conveniently. Before you on the screen there are paths which can be any way filled subsequently by sound fragments - regions. As region it is possible to use both a sound fragment entirely, and it’s any part.

Besides, the most known programs for multichannel mixing now are: Nuendo, Sonar, Logic Audio, Cubase. Such multichannel editors-sequencers carry out the same function. Their cost fluctuates from 150 dollars (program Cubase SE) to 2000 dollars (program Nuendo 3). It is not necessary to forget: the more cheaply the program, the is less at it than functions and possibilities.

Mixing mastering are a creative process, the result depends on it. For this work the highly skilled sound producer, as a rule, is invited. Services of such master it is a lot of money, and the sum is established in each concrete case separately. Only at use of a full hardware and experience of professionals mixing mastering will be made up to the mark.

The final stage - mastering. This process helps to improve sounding of a material and to deduce it on professional level. Result of mastering is that sound recording which in the subsequent is duplicated.

House studio: dream or a reality?

The small set of means is necessary for digital house studio. The computer becomes certain multichannel tape recorder with the built in mixer, various equalizers, compressors, a synthesizer (MIDI-keyboard). All it allows to process separately each sound: possibility of nonlinear editing.

Having spent, to today's measures, small enough means (from 3 to 10 thousand dollars), it is possible to create good house studio. It is enough its possibilities to create the first musical masterpieces and to be trained in cunnings of arrangement. It is not necessary to buy the most expensive equipment if you, of course, do not wish to write down stars of level Britney Spears or Sting.

Julia Movshovich
Natalia Dudina